Official Name: República del Perú (Republic of Peru)
Area: 1'285,215 square km
22'639,000 (census of 1993) - 25'662,00 (estimated 2000)
Capital of the Republic: Lima
It is located in
the central and western part of South America, it limits to the N with Ecuador,
to the NE with Colombia, to the E with Brazil, to the SE with Bolivia, to the S
with Chile and to the W with the Pacific Ocean. The marine domain is called
"Sea of Grau" (in honor of a Peruvian Hero Admiral
Miguel Grau), reaches
a distance of 200 marine miles from the coastline.
The Peruvian State has also affirmed its presence in the Antarctic like
Advisory Member of the Treaty of the Antarctic.
The Peruvian territory possesses a great geographical contrast and presents three defined
natural regions, parallel among each other from north to south.
The coast: Located to the west, it is a narrow fringe of
desert, sandy and arid plains, with valleys oasis formed by rivers that go down
from the Andes Mountains to the sea, and in these valleys big populated centers
The Mountain: Also called Andean region is of uneven
topography, it is formed by the Mountain range of the Andes, and is located
between the coast and the forest; high mountains, deep valleys, plateaus. The
highest pick in Peru is the Huascarán and it has 22,224 feet
(6,780 m) above sea level.
The forest: Also called Amazonian, mountain or east, located to the
east, formed by the oriental hillsides of the Mountain range of the Andes and
extensive plains with exuberant vegetation and tropical forests. It is furrowed
by numerous rivers, all tributary of the Amazonas River. The forest occupies more
than 50% of the territory existing some zones that are in full discovery and
In the whole Peruvian territory rules the same hour, without hour change in any time of the year.
The hour in Peru is -5 GMT (UT)
Lima, capital of Peru, is located in
longitude 77° O.
The Peruvian people is multiethnic and has a pluralism of cultures, descendants of the
Colombian cultures, the colonial miscegenation and immigrations.
The estimated population for 1998 is of 24'866,000 inhabitants with an annual
growth rate of 1.9%. The metropolis of Lima
concentrates the 28% of population.
Geographical distribution of population:
North and central Mountain:
North Coast: 16.9%
South Coast: 8.2%
Ethnic people in Peru:
Indians (Quechua and
Mestizos (cholos): 32%
Black and mulattos:
School, Primary (6
degrees) obligatory, Secondary (4 degrees) obligatory, and high school (2
degrees). Numerous technological superior institutes and 54 universities in the
national environment with near 500 thousand university students give the
For more information and statistical data on the Peruvian population Instituto Nacional de Estadística e
The official language of Peru is the Spanish, and in the areas where
prevail are also the Quechua, Aimara and other
English is a language that many people linked to the tourism sector dominate,
and the tourist operators dominate other foreign languages, as German, French,
Italian, Japanese, etc.
In Peru exist the freedom of credo or religion. The State recognizes the Catholic Church
as an important element in the historical, cultural and moral formation of Peru, and lends its collaboration. The State respects other confessions.
The population in Peru is Catholic 89%, Evangelical 6.7% and other
the last Constitution of 1993, Peru is a democratic, social, independent
and sovereign republic.
Its government is unitary, representative and decentralized, and is organized
according to the principle of the separation of powers.
The Executive Power: The President of the Republic is the
Chief of State and personifies the Nation, is chosen by direct vote and absolute
majority. Their command is for 5 years. The President is accompanied by 2 Vice
Presidents and the Council of Ministers. The President of the Republic is
Dr. Alejandro Toledo (July 2001 - July 2006).
The Legislative Power: It resides in the Congress, which
consists of a unique chamber, and it is conformed by 120 congress members that
are chosen democratically by a 5 year-period and their renovation coincides with
that of the President of the Republic.
Beside them also exist the Judicial Power, The Council of the Magistracy, The
Public Ministry, The Defense of the Town and the Constitutional Guaranty
The local governments are in charge of the Municipal Council, constituted by
the Mayor and the advisors for each one of the county capitals and districts.
They are chosen democratically every 5 years and they have political, economic
and administrative autonomy in the matters that are of their competition.
Peru is divided in 24 departments and 1
Each department is divided in counties, 189 counties
exist in the national environment. Each county is divided in districts, 1800
districts exist in the national environment (modernized in 1994)
The capital of the Republic of Peru is Lima
The Historical capital of Peru is Cusco
Main cities of Peru: